مأخذشناسی آثار درباره خط و نگارش بریل

مأخذشناسی آثار درباره خط و نگارش بریل

اباذر نصر اصفهانی
مقدمه
خط بریل نوعی خط برجسته و نمادین است که توسط لویی بریل اختراع شد. هدف او بنیان گذاری الفبایی بود که نابینایان بتوانند به وسیله آن، متون را بخوانند یا مطالب و خواسته های خود را بنویسند.
نابینایان چون فاقد قدرت بینایی هستند، ضرورتاً باید از طرق دیگر و حواسی مثل شنوایی یا لامسه، به فراگیری اقدام نمایند. آنان اگر بخواهند با گوش و شنوایی، مطالب را یاد بگیرند، لزوماً باید متون نوشتاری تبدیل به گفتاری شود؛ اما اگر بخواهند با لامسه متون را یاد بگیرند متن عادی و مسطح بینایی باید تبدیل به حروف وکلمات برجسته گردد. زیرا لامسه آدمی هر آنچه را که بُعد (طول و عرض و ارتفاع) داشته باشد تشخیص می‌دهد.
لویی بریل پس از آزمون و خطاهای بسیار متوجه شد، بُعددار کردن حروف و کلمات انگلیسی با زبان-های دیگر بسیار دشوار است و بهتر است حروف و کلمات را تبدیل به علائم ساده نمود سپس آن علائم را بُعددار کرد. اما ساده ترین حروف و کلمه ای که پیدا کرد نقطه بود. در ادامه کار با ترکیب قرادادی نقطه ها، حروف نمادین را خلق کرد و از این طریق توانست کلمات بُعدداری را ابداع کند که نابینایان بتوانند از طریق آنها متون را درک کنند و یا مطالب ذهن خود را به دیگران انتقال دهند.
از ۱۸۲۹ میلادی که بریل در اروپا پذیرفته شد تاکنون یعنی بیش از دو سده، تحقیقات بسیار درباره این نوع خط و تأثیر آن و ابعاد روانی، اجتماعی، ادبی و فنی آن عرضه و منتشر شده است. به طوری که هم اکنون بریل پژوهی یا بریل شناسی موضوعی حجیم و قابل توجه است. همچنین متون فراوانی تبدیل به خط بریل شده و با این نوع الفبا منتشر شده است. این مأخذشناسی در دو بخش فارسی و انگلیسی به معرفی آثار می‌پردازد. این آثار منحصر به تحقیقات بریل پژوهی است و متونی که به خط بریل است از قلمرو بیرون است.
قبلاً در مأخذشناسی مهم با عنوان فهرستگان کتاب‌های بریل ایران (۱۳۷۷) و کتابشناسی منابع بریل و گویا (۱۳۸۱) منتشر شده است.
فصل یکم: منابع فارسی

کتابها
آئین نگارش خط بریل. علی اكبر جمالی …و دیگران، تهران، دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی، ۱۳۷۵.
استانداردهای ملی خدمات کتابخانه‌ای برای نابینایان. شیرین تعاونی (خالقی)، دبیرخانه هیئت امنای کتابخانه‌های عمومی کشور، ۱۳۷۹، چاپ دوم.
پیروزی بر شب: سرگذشت لوئی بریل. اثر کریستان، ترجمه سیروس طاهباز، تهران، انتشارات کانون پرورش فکری، ۱۳۶۶.
خدمات ویژه کتابخانه برای نابینایان. سعید غفاری و فریده فرامین، تهران، انتشارات چاپار و دبیزش، ۱۳۹۱، ۱۵۸ص.
دنیا در سر انگشتان لوییز بریل. نویسنده باربارا اکنر، ترجمه احمد قندهاری، تهران، مهاجر، ۱۳۸۸، ۶۰ص.
شرح الفبای بریل. شاعر زلیخا فیروزجائیان‌، گلوگاه، ساری، پژوهشهای فرهنگی، ۱۳۹۲، ۱۶ص.
ف‍ه‍رس‍ت‍گ‍ان‌ ک‍ت‍اب‍ه‍ای‌ ب‍ری‍ل‌ ای‍ران‌. ت‍ه‍ی‍ه‌ و ت‍ن‍ظی‍م‌ ش‍ی‍ری‍ن‌ ت‍ع‍اون‍ی‌ (خ‍ال‍ق‍ی‌)، ب‍ا ه‍م‍ک‍اری‌ ای‍ران‍دخ‍ت‌ ع‍زی‍زی‌، ت‍ه‍ران‌، ک‍ت‍اب‍خ‍ان‍ه‌ م‍ل‍ی‌ ج‍م‍ه‍وری‌ اس‍لام‍ی‌ ای‍ران‌‏، ۱۳۷۷، ۲۶۹ص.
ک‍ت‍اب‍ش‍ن‍اس‍ی‌ م‍ن‍اب‍ع‌ گ‍وی‍ا و ب‍ری‍ل‌ ای‍ران‌ ۱۳۷۹ – ۱۳۷۳. ش‍ی‍ری‍ن‌ ت‍ع‍اون‍ی‌ و م‍ه‍وش‌ ب‍ه‍ن‍ام و ای‍ران‍دخ‍ت‌ ع‍زی‍زی‌، ت‍ه‍ران‌، ک‍ت‍اب‍خ‍ان‍ه‌ م‍ل‍ی‌ ج‍م‍ه‍وری‌ اس‍لام‍ی‌ ای‍ران‌، ۱۳۸۱، ۳۱۰ص.
ل‍وی‍ی‌ ب‍ری‍ل‌: م‍خ‍ت‍رع‌ ال‍ف‍ب‍ای‌ وی‍ژه‌ ن‍اب‍ی‍ن‍ای‍ان‌. م‍ارگ‍رت‌ دی‍وی‍دس‍ن، ت‍رج‍م‍ه‌ ش‍ه‍لا طه‍م‍اس‍ب‍ی‌، ت‍ه‍ران‌: ه‍ی‍رم‍ن‍د، ۱۳۷۲، ۶۲ص.
لوی‍ی‌ ب‍ری‍ل‌. ب‍ورل‍ی‌ ب‍رچ‌؛ ‍ت‍رج‍مه گ‍لاره‌ اس‍دی‌، ت‍ه‍ران‌، ج‍اده‌ اب‍ری‍ش‍م‌، ۱۳۷۷، ۶۴ص.
لوی‍ی‍س‌ ب‍ری‍ل‌. ‌ پ‍ورل‍ی‌ ب‍ری‍چ‌، ت‍رج‍م‍ه‌ م‍ن‍ی‍ژه‌ اس‍لام‍ی‌، ت‍ه‍ران‌ : وزارت‌ آم‍وزش‌ و پ‍رورش‌، مؤسسه‌ ف‍ره‍ن‍گ‍ی‌ م‍ن‍ادی‌ ت‍رب‍ی‍ت، ۱۳۸۳، ۱۰۴ص.

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«نقطه‌های حادویی در خط بریل». محمد صحت، صنعت چاپ، ش ۲۰۱، سال ۱۳۷۸، ص ۶۵.

مقالات روزنامه‌ها
«از بریل تا بریل زندگینامه لوییس بریل مبتکر خط بریل». ترجمه پریسا رهنما، روزنامه همشهری، ۲۱ آذر ۱۳۷۳.
«اختراع عصای بریل مسیریاب برای نابینایان». روزنامه ای‍ران‌، ۲۳ مهر ۱۳۹۰، ص ۱۱.
«ایران از این دل‌های روشن سپید شد / گفت وگویی خودمانی با خبرنگاران ایران سپید تنها روزنامه خط بریل جهان». مریم فرهمند، روزنامه ای‍ران‌، ۲۳ مهر ۱۳۹۲، ص ۱۴.
«ایران سپید در دستهای گرم مهربانی گزارش مصور از چگونگی انتشار ایران سپید تنها روزنامه نابینایان در خاورمیانه». روزنامه ایران، ۲۰ فروردین ۱۳۷۶.
«ای‍ران‌ س‍پ‍ی‍ده‌ دری‍چ‍ه‌ی‍ی‌ اس‍ت‌ دو س‍وی‍ه‌ ب‍ه‌ ج‍ه‍ان‌ ن‍اب‍ی‍ن‍ای‍ان»‌. ص‍ف‍ا ف‍اض‍ل‍ی‌، روزنامه ای‍ران‌، ۲۰ فروردین ۱۳۷۶.
«ایران سپید، زبان اجتماعی نابینایان ایران زمین». میعاد صادقی،
«ای‍ران‍ی‍ان‌ پ‍ای‍ه‌گ‍ذار خ‍ط ب‍ری‍ل»‌. س‍ای‍ه رش‍ی‍دی‌، روزنامه ه‍م‍ش‍ه‍ری‌، ۲ م‍ه‍ر ۱۳۸۱، ص‌ ۲۰.
«با دست ها هم می توان دید نگاهی متفاوت به نوع مواجهه جامعه به معلولین». مهدی پورحسین، امید جوان، شماره ۸۲۰.
«چاپگر رایانه یی جدید برای نگارش خط بریل». محمد شریفی، روزنامه ای‍ران‌، ۲۲ اسفند ۱۳۷۵.
«حق کپی رایت تبدیل کتب دنیا به خط بریل برداشتـه می شـود / گزارش از چگونگی دسترسی نابینایان به انتشارات دنیا». سمیـه بهمنـی، روزنامه ای‍ران‌، ۱۳ تیر ۱۳۹۲، ص ۴.
«خط بریل از گذشته تا امروز ». روزنامه ملت ما، ۲۴ مهر ۱۳۹۰.
«داستان خط بریل در ایران و مدرسه ای با نیم قرن خاطره / یک روز، روز عصای سفید در مجتمع آموزشی نابینایان شهید محبی». مجید سرایی، روزنامه ای‍ران‌، ۲۳ مهر ۱۳۹۲، ص ۱۴.
«روزنامه بریل ایران تحولی در نیاز روشندلان ». روزنامه ای‍ران‌، ۹ تیر ۱۳۷۵.
«روزن‍ام‍ه‌ی‍ی‌ ب‍ه‌ خ‍ط ب‍ری‍ل». روزنامه ای‍ران‌، ۲ ت‍ی‍ر ۱۳۷۵، ص‌ ۷.
«رویارویی: مدرسه نابینایان و خط «بریل»». عبدالرضا شهبازی، روزنامه شرق، ۲ مهر ۱۳۹۱، ص ۲۰.
«زندگی روی خط‌های برجسته/ مدیرمسئول ایران سپید از چالش‌های نخستین روزنامه ویژه نابینایان كشور می‌گوید ». صادق دهقان منشادی، روزنامه ای‍ران‌، ۲ اردیبهشت ۱۳۹۲، ص ۱۵.
«ضرورت گسترش بیشتر کتابخانه‌های نابینایان و تبدیل مداوم کتاب‌های مفید به نوع بریل». میترا نیک‌پور، روزنامه اطلاعات، ۹ شهریور ۱۳۷۱.
«ل‍وی‍ی‌ ب‍ری‍ل». ک‍ام‍ب‍ی‍ز ت‍وان‍ا، روزنامه شرق، ۱۵ دی‌ ۱۳۸۳، ص‌ ۱۹.
«لویی بریل مخترع خط مخصوص نابینایان». ابوالفضل گیلانی، روزنامه کار و کارگر، ۲۸ خرداد ۱۳۸۸.
«نابینایان هم حق دارند كتاب بخوانند/ تشویق ناشران برای ارائه كتاب به خط بریل راهكار مناسبی برای كمك به كتابخوانی نابینایان است». فروغ شمیم، روزنامه جام جم، ۲۹ آبان ۱۳۹۱، ص ۸.
«ن‍اب‍ی‍ن‍ای‍ان‌ و م‍ش‍ک‍لات‌ اس‍ت‍ف‍اده‌ از خ‍ط ب‍ری‍ل‌ در زب‍ان‌ ف‍ارس‍ی»‌. م‍ح‍م‍دن‍اص‍ر ح‍س‍ی‍ن‍ی‌ع‍لای‍ی‌، روزنامه کیهان، ۲۵ مهر ۱۳۷۳، ص۷.
«و ام‍ا م‍اج‍رای‌ خ‍ط ب‍ری‍ل‌: نگاهی به اوضاع نشر و کتاب ویژه نابینایان». م‍ح‍م‍د ص‍ح‍ت‌، روزنامه ای‍ران‌، ۱۸ م‍رداد ۱۳۷۶، ص۹.
«یک حس بدیع، دیدن با انگشتان». روزنامه ایران، ۳۰ خرداد ۱۳۷۵.

پایان‌نامه
برنامه مترجم زبان فارسی وانگلیسی به زبان بریل. آزاده ضرغامی، پ‍ای‍ان‌ن‍ام‍ه‌ کارشناسی‌ارشد، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم اجتماعی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد قوچان، ۱۳۸۷.
بررسی مشکلات یادگیری خط بریل از دیدگاه معلمان دانش‌آموزان نابینای دوره‌ی ابتدایی استان خوزستان سال ۱۳۸۹ . حسن‌علی کریمی‌پور، پ‍ای‍ان‌ن‍ام‍ه‌ کارشناسی‌ارشد، رشته روانشناسی، گرایش کودکان استثنایی، به راهنمایی مریم سیف‌نراقی و مشاوره عزت‌اله نادری، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم اجتماعی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد تهران مرکزی، ۱۳۹۰.
بررسی میزان استفاده نابینایان و کم‌بینایان از کتاب¬های گویا، بریل و الکترونکی در استان تهران. نرگس السادات آیت اللهی، پایان نامه کارشناسی ارشد، به راهنمایی فریدون آزاده و مشاوره علی شکویی، رشته کتابداری و اطلاع رسانی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران، ۱۳۸۲.
تأثیر روشهای آموزش راهبردهای فراشناختی و رایانه‌ای بر کاهش مشکلات خواندن بریل در دانش¬آموزان نابینا. فرزانه آقاصفی، پ‍ای‍ان‌ن‍ام‍ه‌ کارشناسی ارشد، رشته روانشناسی، گرایش کودکان استثنایی، به راهنمایی فرناز کشاورزی‌ارشدی و مشاوره سوزان‌ امامی‌پور، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم اجتماعی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد تهران مرکزی، ۱۳۸۹.
نقد و بررسی نظام نوشتاری بریل فارسی و ارایه راهکارهایی برای رفع برخی ایرادهای این نظام. نرجس منفرد، پ‍ای‍ان‌ن‍ام‍ه‌ کارشناسی ارشد، به راهنمایی نادر جهانگیری و میرسجاد موسوی، رشته زبان شناسی، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی دکتر علی شریعتی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، ۱۳۸۹.

طرح پژوهشی
تبدیل کامپیوتری متون فارسی چاپ شده به خط بریل، محمدحسن عشقی، دانشكده مهندسی برق و كامپیوتر، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی.
تبدیل متون بینایی به نابینایی، پریسا ریاحی، ۱۳۷۴.
طرح تحقیقی گردآوری، تدوین و تثبیت علایم خط بریل (خط نابینایان)، محمدرضا ظروفی و دیگران، وزارت آموزش و پرورش معاونت آموزشی، ۱۳۷۰.

فصل دوم: آثار به زبان انگلیسی

Books

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Braille Authority of North America, comp. Computer Braille Code: Flowchart Design for Applicable Braille Codes Supplement. Louisville, Ky.: American Printing House for the Blind, 1992.

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Braille Authority of North America, comp. Manual of Braille Music Notation: American Edition, 1988. Louisville, Ky: American Printing House for the Blind, 1991.

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Connecting the Dots: A Parent’s Resource for Promoting Early Braille Literacy. AFB.

Craig, Ruth H. Learning the Nemeth Code: A Manual for Teachers and Students. Louisville, Ky.: American Printing House for the Blind, 1987.

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De Garmo, Mary Turner. Introduction to Braille Music Transcription with 1974 Addenda A-C. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, 1988.

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Drezek, Wendy. Move Touch Do! Louisville, KY: American Printing House for the Blind, 1995.

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Goldish, Louis H. Braille in the United States: Its Production, Distribution, and Use. New York, NY, US: American Foundation for the Blind, 1967. 103 pp.

Gore, George V. III, and Teresa A. Kauffman. Braille Authority of North America (BANA): History, Organization and Accomplishments. Braille Authority of North America, 1983.

Harley, Randall K., Freda M. Henderson, Mila B. Truan. The Teaching of Braille Reading. Springfield, IL: Thomas, c1979.

Harley, Randall K., Mila B. Truan, and LaRhea D. Sanford. Communication Skills for Visually Impaired Learners: Braille, Print, and Listening Skills for Students who are Visually Impaired, 2nd ed. Springfield, IL, US: Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1997.

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Jenkins, Edward W., comp. Primer of Braille Music. Louisville, Ky.: American Printing House for the Blind, 1960.

Kusajima, T. Visual Reading and Braille Reading: An Experimental Investigation of the Physiology and Psychology of Visual and Tactual Reading. New York, NY: American Foundation for the Blind, 1974. 60 pp.

Lowenfeld, Berthold, Georgie L. Abel, and Philip H. Hatlen. Blind Children Learn to Read. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas. 1968. 155 pp.

Mangold, S.S. (Ed). A Teacher’s Guide to the Special Educational Needs of Blind and Visually Handicapped Children. New York: American Foundation for the Blind, 1982.

Mangold, Sally S. and Myrna R. Olson. Guidelines and Games for Teaching Efficient Braille Reading. AFB Press, 1981.

Mates, Barbara T. Braille Access. Adaptive Technology for the Internet: Making Electronic Resources Accessible. Chicago: American Library Association, 1999.

Mathematics Braille Transcribing Course. Washington, DC: National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, Library of Congress, 1998.

McCloskey, Robert. Make Way for Ducklings. New York: The Vicking Press, 1941.

Millar, Susanna. Reading by Touch. London; New York, Florence, KY: Routledge, 1997.

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Pester, E., F. Otto, and K.J. Poppe. Braillewriting Dot to Dot. Louisville, KY: American Printing House for the Blind, 1995.

Rex, E. J., A.J. Koenig, D. Wormsley, and R. Baker. Foundations of Braille Literacy. New York: American Foundation for the Blind, 1994.

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Spungin, Susan. Braille Literacy: Issues for Blind Persons, Families, Professionals, and Producers of Braille. AFB Press, 1990.

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Swenson, Anna M. Beginning with Braille: Firsthand experiences with a Balanced Approach to Literacy. New York: AFB Press, c1999.

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Articles

Allman, Carol B. “Braille Communication Skills: What Teachers Teach and Visually Impaired Adults Use.” Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness (May 1998): 331-7.

Allman, Carol B. and M. Cay Holbrook. “Providing a Braille Refresher Course for Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments.” Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness (December 1999): 770-7.

Morgan, Sandra Kanouse and Sharon Bradley-Johnson. “Technical Adequacy of Curriculum-based Measurement for Braille Readers.” School Psychology Review (1995): 94-103.

Allman, Carol B., and Sandra Lewis. “Content Validity of the National Literary Braille Competency Test.” RE:view (Fall 1996): 103-12.

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Berryman, John. “Computerized Braille Production: A Producer’s Viewpoint.” Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 75 (June 1981): 261-4.

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Biederman-Anderson, Linda. “Braille Telecaptioning: Making Real-time Television Accessible to Deaf-blind Consumers.” Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness (March 1989): 164-5.

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Bogart, Darleen, and others. Views from Canada. International Conference on English Braille Grade 2: Proceedings. Edited by Richard H. Evensen. From Conference at the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped of the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C., September 13-17, 1982. Washington, D.C., 1982.

Bertelson, Paul, and Philippe Mousty. “Simultaneous Reading of Braille with the Two Hands: Reply to Millar (1987).” Cortex (Sept. 1989): 495-8.

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Boyer, Alison S. “Identification of Characters with Shared Representations: Decoding Musical and Literary Braille.” Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 91 (January-February 1997): 77-86.

Boyer, Alison S. “Rehearsal and Recognition of Braille Music Melodies by Skilled and Less Skilled Braille Decoders.” Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness (Nov/Dec. 1997): 593-5.

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Braille Literacy: Resources for Instruction, Writing Equipment, and Supplies. Washington, DC: National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, Library of Congress, 1995.

“Braille Trail (Augmented title: Lion’s Tale Trail for the Blind, George Washington National Forest).” National Geographic World (June 1986): 3-5.

Braunstein, Anna Lee. “A Teacher’s Perspective on the Unified Braille Code.” Article found at http://edtech.sdcs.k12.ca.us/epd/ANNA.html(January 17, 1996).

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Brösamle, C. “Braille Books from Compositors’ Tapes.” Braille Research Newsletter, no.5 (July 1977): 13-8.

Brothers, Roy J. “Classroom Use of the Braille Code Recognition Materials.” Education of the Visually Handicapped (March 1974): 6-13.

Brown, D.A.G. “The Introduction of Braille Produced by Computer at The Canadian National Institute for the Blind.” Braille Research Newsletter, no.6 (October 1977): 4-10.

Brugsch, Henry. “Braille-Edit.” Byte (March 1986): 251-2.

Brunot, William and Gudrun Brunot. “Colors Without Sight: A Method for Differentiating Colors in Braille.” Etc (Winter 1986): 332-5.

Bruteig, Jan M. “The Reading Rates for Contracted and Uncontracted Braille of Blind Norwegian Adults.” Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness (Jan 1987): 19-23.

Buckley, John E. “The Efficiency of Braille as a Medium of Communication.” Braille Research Newsletter, no.6 (October 1977): 11-25.

Burns, Jim. “Braille: A Birthday Look at its Past, Present, and Future.” Braille Monitor (March 1975): 117-120.

Carreiras, Manuel and Carlos J. Alvarez. “Comprehension Processes in Braille Reading.” Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness. (September 1999): 589-95.

Castellano, Carol. “Doing Math in Braille.” In The Bridge to Braille: Reading and School Success for the Young Blind Child, edited by Carol Castellano and Dawn Kosman. Baltimore: National Organization of Parents of Blind Children, 1997.

Castellano, Carol. “The Bridge to Braille: Reading and School Success for the Young Blind Child.” Baltimore: National Organization of Parents of Blind Children, c1997.

Cates, Dennis L. “The Effects of a Computer Generated Tachistoscopic-like Program on Braille Reading Behaviors in Blind University Students.” Dissertation Abstracts International (March 1987): 3393.

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